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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2021
Volume 18 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 33-77

Online since Wednesday, September 15, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLE: ORAL BIOLOGY, ORAL PATHOLOGY, ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY, ORAL MEDICINE, PERIODONTOLOGY AND ORAL RADIOLOGY  

Coronavirus disease 2019: the role of telemedicine and teleteaching. A review p. 33
Madhura Dattatraya Kulkarni, Harshawardhan Kadam, Ankit Mahajan, Rohit Singh
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_30_20  
Beginning from late December 2019, this spring of 2020 has been a testing time globally for every individual. Especially impacted are the health care educators of both medical and dental communities. New coronavirus disease 2019 or severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 is a highly contagious and lethal virus that has drastically influenced students, health care teachers, patients, and clinicians similarly. Numerous dental and medical schools/colleges have temporarily put on hold all clinical postings and placements along with classroom teaching to counter this virus's transmissibility. The onset of this disease may have profound and drastic consequences as colleges and universities have begun to conduct remote assessments while few are even considering deferring fresh students' related courses due to the inability in carrying out teaching and clinical postings. As health care systems shall be further stretched with an increasing burden of new coronavirus disease 2019, disruptions in medical education are expected across all countries and continents. Hence, necessary arrangements have to be made so that learning students can maintain their clinical skills as well as knowledge. Teleteaching or remote teaching technologies can potentially substitute in-person lectures and clinical training, particularly during the current pandemic era. These replacement approaches may be necessary as effective measures in the current medical education dilemma during this current health care crisis and shall also aid in laying the future foundation for teaching during similar confounding situations. In this review article, we shall discuss various modes of remote teaching that are available at this time.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: PROSTHODONTICS, ENDODONTICS, OPERATIVE DENTISTRY AND DENTAL BIOMATERIALS Top

Comparative study between different designs of maxillary implant assisted overdenture (in vitro study) p. 38
Samar H Makled, Fadel A Abd Elfatah, Mohamed N El-Guindy
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_23_19  
Purpose Evaluate microstrains on peri-implants tissue of different designs of maxillary complete overdenture assisted by different number of implants. Methods Two maxillary epoxy resin models used, for the first model two implants with 4.5 mm diameter and 13 mm length installed in the canine area and two implants with 4.5 mm diameter and 10 mm length installed in the second premolar area and two designs of maxillary overdenture used: group I maxillary implant overdenture (MIOD) assisted by four implants and Group (II) palateless maxillary implant overdenture assisted by four implants, for the second model two implants with 4.5 mm diameter and 13 mm length installed in the canine area and two designs of maxillary over denture used: group III MIOD assisted by two implants and group IV palateless implant overdenture assisted by two implants, four strain gauges used around each implant, bilateral static 100 N vertical load and 65 N oblique load applied on the occlusal surface of each MIOD. Stress meter used to measure the microstrains using software (ED × 10 A). Results The least stress found related to group I under 100 N vertical loading and the highest readings found related to group IV under 65 N oblique loading, under vertical loading stresses recorded in group III was greater than group I, stress in group IV was greater than group II, stress in group II was greater than group I, stress in group IV was greater than group III, under oblique loading, stress in group III was greater than group I, stress in group IV was greater than group II, stress in group II was greater than group I, stress in group IV was greater than group II. Conclusion Removing the palatal part from MIOD could be done in case of using four implants without damaging the prei-implants tissues.
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Effect of mouthrinses and repolishing on color stability of hybrid nanoceramic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing material p. 45
Gaye Sağlam, Seda Cengiz
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_18_20  
Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different two mouthrinses and repolishing on the color stability of hybrid nanoceramic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) material. Materials and Methods Thirty specimens with dimensions of 1.5 × 12 × 12 mm3 were prepared from Cerasmart CAD/CAM blocks and divided into three groups according to the immersion solutions; distilled water, Oral B, and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) for 2 min, twice for a day. Initial, 7th day, 14th day, and following repolishing color values were measured with a dental spectrophotometer according to the CIELab system and color changes were calculated (ΔE). Data were statistically analyzed with the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results Oral B and CHX groups showed significantly higher ΔE values than control groups (P ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were found between Oral B and CHX in both ΔE measurements (P ≥ 0.05). There were no significant differences among the 7th day, 14th day, and after repolishing color changes in control and CHX groups (P ≥ 0.05). However, color change after repolishing was significantly less than the 14th day color change (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Oral B and CHX caused discoloration on the CAD/CAM restorative material in clinically acceptable limits. Repolishing could provide a significant change only after 14 days of use Oral B.
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Clinical evaluation of two glass ionomer restorative materials in class I cavities p. 49
Ali I Abdalla, Mostafa M Hassan, Mohamed R Naanosh
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_26_20  
Aim To evaluate the clinical performance of two glass ionomer restorative materials (EQUIA Forte Fil and IonoStar Molar) and a nanohybrid composite (Tetric EvoCeram) in class I cavities over 1 year. Patients and methods Twenty patients of age 25–40 years received 60 restorations. Each patient received three different restorations representing the tested materials. Class I cavity was prepared according to the caries extension. All the materials were applied following the manufacturer's instructions. Finishing and polishing was performed using finishing burs and polishing discs. Each restoration was evaluated clinically at baseline (24 h), 6 months and after 1 year using modified USPHS. Results The recall rate was 100% after 1 year. The alpha rating for retention and restoration fracture for EQUIA Forte Fil were 95%, IonoStar Molar 85%, Tetric EvoCeram 100% alpha ratings. For marginal discoloration for EQUIA Forte Fil were 95%, IonoStar Molar 80%, Tetric EvoCeram 95% alpha ratings. For marginal adaptation for EQUIA Forte Fil were 90%, IonoStar Molar 80%, Tetric EvoCeram 90% alpha ratings. For anatomic form for EQUIA Forte Fil 95%, IonoStar Molar 75%, Tetric EvoCeram 95% alpha ratings. For color match for EQUIA Forte Fil 85%, IonoStar Molar 80%, Tetric EvoCeram 90% alpha ratings. For surface texture for EQUIA Forte Fil 85%, IonoStar Molar 90%, Tetric EvoCeram 95% alpha ratings. For secondary caries for EQUIA Forte Fil 95%, IonoStar Molar 85%, Tetric EvoCeram 100% alpha ratings. Using χ2 test, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested groups for marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomic form, color match, and surface texture (P<0.05). Conclusion EQUIA Forte Fil Glass ionomer achieved clinically superior results after 1 year of service. IonoStar Molar Glass ionomer also achieved acceptable results. Tetric EvoCeram composite achieved superior clinical results for all criteria of the evaluation. A longer evaluation period may be recommended to decide the use of these materials safely in class I cavities.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE: ORAL BIOLOGY, ORAL PATHOLOGY, ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY, ORAL MEDICINE, PERIODONTOLOGY AND ORAL RADIOLOGY Top

Piezosurgery – a sanctifying invention for osseous surgeries in periodontics and implant dentistry p. 60
Rajendran Poornima
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_31_20  
The use of various hard tissue cutting instruments like micromotors and carbide burs pose a certain disadvantage such as excessive heat generation, smear layer formation, difficulty in controlling the bleeding of the operating field, etc. These disadvantages not only increase the intraoperative time but also affects the overall prognosis of the treatment. At present, the use of power ultrasonics has gained popularity over conventional techniques for procedures involving hard tissues. It overcomes the various disadvantages of traditional instruments as well as provides increased precision, protection of both soft and hard tissues as well as hastens the healing after osseous surgeries. The present review article aims to highlight the impact created by the piezoelectric devices in various dental procedures, specifically periodontal and implant related therapies, its mechanism of action and the advantages over conventional osseous surgeries.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: ORTHODONTICS, PEDIATRIC AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY Top

Assessment of knowledge and awareness among nursing students of a private medical university towards periodontal health and oral-systemic disease link: A cross-sectional study p. 67
Kanika Verma, Deepa Dhruvakumar
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_12_20  
Background Health is a global human demand for all strata of population. Oral health plays an essential role to conserve the overall general health. Many systemic conditions have been linked in association with periodontitis, such as preterm low birth weight infants, cardiovascular disease and related events such as angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Education of oral health is considered to abide an essential prerequisite for oral health-related behavior. This survey was carried out to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about periodontal health and its oral-systemic disease link amongst the nursing students of private medical university. Aim To perceive an understanding among students of nursing college at private university on periodontal health and their knowledge about oral health and link of systemic disease with the help of a questionnaire survey. Patients and methods Three hundred and fifty nursing students were provided with a self-constructed 15 items questionnaire. χ2 test was utilized for individual questions and Kruskal–Wallis test was applied to compare overall periodontal health awareness and awareness about oral-systemic link among students of nursing college. Results and conclusion A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed, out of which all 350 were completed by the students and evaluated for the study with an overall response of questions rate of 97%. The study indicated that 40% of the nursing students were having knowledge about the health of gums and oral hygiene maintenance. Thirty-seven percent were aware about the oral hygiene practices and 23% were familiar about the perio-systemic disease link. But 77% were unaware about the correlation between the periodontal health and systemic diseases.
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Metal ions release in children with stainless steel crowns and banded space maintainers p. 72
Nora M M. Aboshanady, Amina M El-Hosary, Hemat El Sayed El Horany
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_24_20  
Aims This work aimed to assess the salivary and urinary levels of nickel and chromium ions in children with stainless steel crowns and band and loop space maintainers. Settings and design The study was conducted as a clinical trial. The clinical part was carried out at Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University and the laboratory work was carried out at Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. Patients and methods Sixty children of both sexes aged between 5 and 8 years old were included in the study. The selected children were divided into two groups; group 1 included 30 children received stainless steel crowns and group 2 included 30 children received band and loop space maintainers. Salivary and urinary samples were collected from the participating children at the beginning of the study and then after 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months of receiving the appliances. The samples were prepared and analyzed for measuring nickel and chromium ions release using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Statistical analysis used All test statistics were performed using the SPSS software statistical package and the significance was set at P value less than or equal to 0.001. Results Salivary metal ions release reached its peak on the first week then diminished with time and urinary release increased on the first week, nearly remained stable till the first month then it decreased with time. Ions levels were higher in urine than in saliva with statistically significant differences. The release is slightly higher in group 2 but without statistically significant differences between both groups. Conclusions The maximum levels of released ions were significantly below their average dietary intake levels and did not reach their upper tolerable intake levels.
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