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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-24

Sealing ability of two adhesive sealers in root canals prepared with different rotary file systems

1 Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
3 Interns, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission01-Jul-2018
Date of Acceptance18-Oct-2018
Date of Web Publication13-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed I Elshinawy
Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, PO Box 3263, Abha 61471, Saudi Arabia

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tdj.tdj_24_18

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To evaluate the apical seal for two different adhesive sealers used with two different rotary systems.
Materials and methods
Forty extracted single-canaled premolars were cleaned, decoronated into equal length root specimens and randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 20). Root canals of root specimens in group 1 were prepared using iRace rotary files while those of group 2 were prepared using ProTaper Next files. Specimens of each group were further subdivided into two equal subgroups (n = 10). Specimens in subgroup 1 were obturated using bioceramic sealer while those of subgroup 2 were obturated using resin sealer. Microleakage test was conducted using dye penetration and longitudinal sectioning technique. Collected data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's comparison to stand over the difference between the tested subgroups at significance level of P value less than 0.5.
There were no statistically significant difference between the tested subgroups and the sealers showed a comparable and satisfactory sealability.
Both bioceramic and resin sealers are comparable in their sealing ability when used for obturating root canals that were prepared with either iRace or ProTaper Next rotary files.

Keywords: adhesive sealers, rotary files, sealing ability

How to cite this article:
Elshinawy MI, Abdelaziz KM, Khawshhal AA, Alqisi AY, Al-Shari HH, Alsalhi IY. Sealing ability of two adhesive sealers in root canals prepared with different rotary file systems. Tanta Dent J 2019;16:21-4

How to cite this URL:
Elshinawy MI, Abdelaziz KM, Khawshhal AA, Alqisi AY, Al-Shari HH, Alsalhi IY. Sealing ability of two adhesive sealers in root canals prepared with different rotary file systems. Tanta Dent J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Dec 7];16:21-4. Available from: http://www.tmj.eg.net/text.asp?2019/16/1/21/260275

  Introduction Top

Complete root canal debridement and obturation with apical and lateral hermetic seal are important criteria for successful endodontics[1],[2]. The introduction of nickel titanium files to the field of canal preparation led to the rise of too many systems, techniques, and materials for root canal preparation and obturation. The cleaning capacity of different NiTi rotary systems varies because of the different cross-sections and blade designs of each system[3]. Among the recently introduced NiTi systems for root canal cleaning and shaping are the ProTaper Next and iRace. ProTaper Next rotary file is made of the recently developed M-wire NiTi alloy with a rectangular cross-section, improved cyclic fatigue resistance, off-center axis, and variable tapers[4],[5]. iRace rotary files were claimed to be safe, fast, and effective in debris removal and maintains the original outline of curved canals[6].

Root canal sealer is an essential component of root canal obturation. One of the basic requirements of root canal sealers is bonding to both the core filling material and the canal wall promoting the formation of a monoblock obturation that enhances the hermetic seal of the canal[7]. Resin sealers have been used successfully over the last decade with very good apical sealing results and a high rate of success however they lack the chemical bond to either the canal wall or gutta percha[8]. Most recently, bioceramic-based sealers have been developed with a very promising properties regarding dimensional stability, chemical adhesive capabilities to both the root canal dentin and the newly introduced bioceramic coated gutta percha to promote the formation of a tertiary monoblock obturation and hence promoting better apical seal[9],[10].

Little is published in the literature regarding the impact of root canal cleaning and shaping techniques on the sealability of newly introduced sealers. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the sealability of both bioceramic and resin sealers in root canals prepared using two different rotary file systems. The null hypothesis was: none of the canal preparation techniques has an impact on the sealability of both sealers.

  Materials and Methods Top

Forty freshly extracted human single-canalled premolars free from cracks or any developmental defects were collected from orthodontic private clinics, disinfected, and decoronated to standardize the remaining root length to 12 mm using a water-cooled diamond disc (Edenta AG, AU/SG, Switzerland). The resulting roots were then prepared in two groups (n = 20) using iRace (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chauxde-Fonds, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) rotary file systems in G1 and G2, respectively. Each group of prepared root canals was then obturated in two subgroups (n = 10) using either bioceramic sealer (Total Fill BC sealer; FKG Dentaire SA) (SG1) or resin sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply Maillefer) (SG2) according to the protocol shown in [Table 1]. Root canal preparation and sealer application were done following the manufacturer's instruction for each product used. Root canal obturation was done using laterally condensed gutta percha (Sure-endo; SureDent Co. Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) for the iRace-prepared canals and single cone technique with the ProTaper Next gutta percha (Dentsply Maillefer) for the ProTaper Next prepared canals. After canal obturation the coronal opening of each canal was sealed with compoglass F (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and the roots were then coated with two coats of nail polish leaving the apical 2 mm only uncoated.
Table 1 Root canal preparation and obturation protocols

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After dryness of the nail polish the root apices of each subgroup were immersed in methylene blue dye (Sigma-Aldrich Inc., St Louis, Missouri, USA) for 48 h. The roots were then removed from the dye, rinsed in tap water to remove excess dye and the nail polish was then removed using scalpel blade. The roots were then sectioned longitudinally into halves using a diamond disc and a chisel. The root canal obturation was removed from root specimens and the maximum linear coronal extension of the apical dye leakage into the root canal was measured using a graduated ruler and a magnifying lens [Figure 1]. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis on version 21.0, IBM SPSS statistics program (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA) for Windows. Both one-way analysis of variance analysis and Tukey's comparison were used to stand on the significance of any differences detected between subgroups.
Figure 1: Different levels of the detected microleakage in different subgroups. (a) G1–SG1, (b) G1–SG2, (c) G2–SG1, (d) G2–SG2.

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  Results Top

The mean dye penetration depth values are recorded in [Table 2]. The one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's pair-wise comparisons [Table 3] showed no significant differences between the microleakage values of the tested subgroups (P > 0.05). Both types of sealers exhibited a comparable microleakage values regardless the utilized root canal preparation system (P > 0.05).
Table 2 Mean±SD dye penetration depth values

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Table 3 Tukey's comparison

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  Discussion Top

One of the deal requirements of root canal sealers is the adhesion to both the root canal dentin and the core filling material of the root canal to obtain a monoblock obturation. This study was conducted to test the sealability of two types of adhesive sealers used with two different types of rotary file preparation techniques.

One of the sealers used was resin-based sealer and the other was a bioceramic-based sealer representing routinely and recently used adhesive sealer categories, respectively. The rotary file systems used were the ProTaper Next and the iRace rotary files. ProTaper Next files are made of the recently advanced M-wire NiTi alloy with a rectangular cross-section, variable tapers, and off-center axis and claimed to preserve the original shape of the root canal without apical transportation[5],[11],[12]. iRace files have triangular cross-section and alternating cutting edges. They have been developed to simplify the original Race system sequence thus securing a faster, effective, and safe instrumentation of the root canal respecting its anatomy and apical constriction[13],[14],[15].

Methylene blue dye was used for microleakage testing in this study because of its low molecular weight, water-solubility, hard tissue nonreactivity, and ease of detection in visible light[16],[17],[18],[19]. Longitudinal sectioning was also used as it enables direct detection of the extent and pattern of dye penetration[20].

The results of the current study showed comparable sealability for both resin and bioceramic sealers in root canals prepared with either ProTaper Next or iRace rotary files. These findings are in agreement with the results of Pawar et al.[20], who reported a comparable sealability between Endosequence BC bioceramic sealer and Real Seal SE self-etch resin sealer in canals prepared using Protaper rotary files and obturated by continuous wave condensation technique. Also, Zhang et al.[21], found an equivalent sealing ability of both resin and bioceramic sealers.

Both ProTaper Next and iRace files have shown comparable efficacy in root canal cleaning and shaping with almost no transportation of the apical constriction[22] and this can explain the comparable sealability results obtained for either of the sealers with both preparation groups in our study. On the other hand some other controversial studies revealed better adhesion[23] and sealing ability[24] of bioceramic sealer compared to the resin sealers. The difference in the results might be referred to difference in leakage testing method used with that used in our study. None of the tested sealers in the current study succeeded in total leakage prevention and this concurs with the results of previous studies that revealed the presence of micro-gaps in the apical third of canal obturated with either bioceramic or resin sealers[24]. These gaps might be due to several factors including air-bubble entrapment at the time of sealer application resulting from excessive dryness of the canal wall which interfere with the proper distribution of the hydrophilic bioceramic sealer to the canal wall[25]. Also contraction of the resin sealer might also be a contributing factor in microgap formation and hence the microleakage[26].

  Conclusion Top

Based on the findings of the current study it could be concluded that:

  1. Both bioceramic and resin sealers are comparable in their sealing ability when used for obturating root canals that were cleaned and shaped with either iRace or ProTaper Next rotary files
  2. A sealer that guarantees a total seal of obturated root canals yet to exist till today.


More efforts are still needed in the search for a cleaning and shaping/obturation complex that can provide a hermetic apical seal.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

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Bergmans L, Van Cleynenbreugel J, Wevers M, Lambrechts P. Mechanical root canal preparation with NiTi rotary instruments: rationale, performance and safety. Status report for the American Journal of Dentistry. Am J Dent 2001; 14:324–333.  Back to cited text no. 3
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  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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